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bcc meaning in construction

In crystallography, atomic packing factor (APF), packing efficiency or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal structure that is occupied by constituent particles. It is a dimensionless quantity and always less than unity. In atomic systems, by convention, the APF is determined by assuming that atoms are rigid spheres. The radius of the spheres is taken to be the maximal value such that the atoms do not overlap. For one-component crystals (those that contain only one type of particle), the packing fraction is represented mathematically by

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{displaystyle mathrm {APF} ={frac {N_{mathrm {particle} }V_{mathrm {particle} }}{V_{mathrm {unit~cell} }}}}

where Nparticle is the number of particles in the unit cell, Vparticle is the volume of each particle, and Vunit cell is the volume occupied by the unit cell. It can be proven mathematically that for one-component structures, the most dense arrangement of atoms has an APF of about 0.74 (see Kepler conjecture), obtained by the close-packed structures. For multiple-component structures, the APF can exceed 0.74.

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